Dead Filipino Soldiers – February 4, 1899
This is photo of dead Filipino soldiers in a trench, showing the destruction caused during the Philippine-American war. Occurring from 1899 – 1902, the war reflected the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain its independence from the United States after being “liberated” from the Spanish. The war was a result of the United States’s refusal to grant the Philippines independence, arguing that the Filipinos were unable to properly govern themselves. There were an estimated 20000 Filipino casualties, 4000 US casualties, and over 200,000 civilian casualties.
Japanese Occupation of Korea – 1894
This photo shows the Japanese military occupation of Pyongyang, Korea, in an attempt to gain control over Korea and challenge both China and Russia. The United States violated the Korean-American Treaty of 1882 by not intervening when the Japanese invaded and oppressed Korea. The Japanese gained complete power over Korea in the early 20th century, implementing harsh and abusive colonial governance. As a result, many political organizations began appearing in overseas Korean communities in Hawai’i and the continental United States, eventually causing American involvement and war.
School Begins, 1899
This political cartoon that was published in 1899 shows Uncle Sam teaching children who each represent the different lands that have come under the possession of the United States. The image shows that Uncle Sam is teaching a class of self-government, as the book on the desk reads “U.S. First Lesson in Self-Government” and the blackboard tells the children about how the U.S. must govern its new territories with or without their consent until they can govern themselves.
This reflects the idea that the Philippines need to be under the control of the U.S. because they were seen as not fit to govern themselves. As the Philippines are shown as a barbaric and ignorant looking child, the artist shows his support for U.S. control over the Philippines.
Uncle Sam to Filipinos- ‘You’re Next’, 1899
This political cartoon that was published in 1899 shows Uncle Sam giving the lands of Puerto Rico, Cuba, Hawaii, and the Philippines a haircut. The image shows the U.S. to be cleaning up the look of the lands that have gone under its possession with scissors labeled “education” and “civilization.” This image reflects the idea that the Philippines are barbaric savages that need to be under control of the United States because they are not fit to govern themselves. By showing the Filipino to be savage-like, the artist shows that they need to be under the control of the U.S. to be educated and civilized.
Title: He’s Getting a Big Boy Now (1898)
Caption: “Sammy – ‘I’m a-goin’ to eat them apples all by myself, an’ there ain’t a-goin’ to be any cores.'”
From the magazine “Judge,” Arkell Publishing Company, New York, June 25, 1898. Artist: Victor Gillam
This image highlights the feeling that America is colonizing the world by taking from other foreign powers. We see France, Italy, Germany, Japan, UK, and Russia all holding their hands out for the apples Cuba, Philippines, and Puerto Rico. The signs depict messages of friendship and perhaps note the backroom dealing between the powers of who would get to colonize where.
Title: Immigrants in early 1900’s, Hawaii
There was no other source information with this image, but I thought it was interesting in how it discussed Korean response to Japan’s annexation in such a matter of fact manner. It says the after annexation Koreans “gave up any thought of returning home” and then apparently moved right on to sending for picture brides. The images also highlight the prevalence of Christianity amongst Korean immigrants to Hawaii.
This picture shows a group of Filipino men, known as sakadas, in Hawaii working at a sugar plantation in 1906. They were the first to work in the Hawaiian plantations and encouraged other Filipinos to follow in their footsteps. Many were willing to work for cheap labor, which is ideal for the plantation owners. Most saved some money and shipped them over to their families in the Philippines.
This cartoon, drawn in 1898, shows the American imperialistic thoughts manifesting in the general public. It shows the comparison of the United States in 1798 and 1898, showing that in just one hundred years the United States expanded significantly. The caption “ten thousand miles from tip to tip” depict the vast colonization of countries/islands, including Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.
Fig. 1. Homer Davenport, Who Gets the Ballot, Philippines or Negro?, 1900.
Despite the title of this work, there are no Filipinos in it. While clearly having to do more with African American suffrage than with Filipino citizenship, the title suggests a link that is further explored in Buenaventura’s The Colors of Manifest Destiny in the Philippines. Though some African Americans were free at this point in time, Jim Crow laws restricted suffrage with the infamous Grandfather Clause. With African Americans effectively maimed with their “second-class citizenry,” the same attitude was applied towards the Filipinos in that they were perhaps mere colonial subjects who were not granted U.S. citizenship. After all, why merely assimilate when you have the option to do so in an ever-so-“benevolent” fashion?
Fig. 2. Emil Flohri, And, After All, The Philippines are Only the Stepping-Stone to China, 1900.
Uncle Sam is using the annexed Philippines as a stepping stone to make his way into China. As he makes his way, he is intent on modernizing the barbarous China with education, religion, railways, and farm machinery. Meanwhile, a single Chinese man stands among signs indicating that China wants to modernize. In a nutshell, this is an embodiment of Senator ALbert Beveridge’s imperialist argument. Perhaps it would have been more apt if Beveridge were depicted in place of Uncle Sam.
Audie’s Pictures (:
Where: Laguna Samar, Philippines Islands
Description: This photo shows the Filipinos saluting the American Flag in Laguna Samar in the Philippine Islands. There was much debate about whether or not America should keep or let go of the Phillipines. While people like Theodore Roosevelt wanted to expand the power of America to more places, there were some that believed the endeavor would corrupt themselves. Some of these concerns came from the fighting between American forces and Filipino people that were still happening even after the undeclared American-Philippines War. However, this picture shows possible progress in integrating Filipino people into the American system. I chose this one because it seemed to be the most unknown in terms of where loyalties lie even though they are saluting to an American flag.
Where: Political cartoon from Boston Sunday Globe
Description: This is a comic that was shown in the Boston Sunday Globe paper of how Filipinos were viewed before and after westward expansion by Americans. It implies that Filipinos were savages before American intervention and that the basis of their lives were war clubs and tendencies to “run amuck”. Senator Albert Beveridge argued how Filipinos were “barbarous” and how “three hundred years of superstition in religion, dishonesty in dealing, disorder in habits of industry, and cruelty, caprice, and corruption in government,” had led them to be incapable of self-government.  He believed that expansion and implementation of American policies would bring organization and civilization to otherwise “senile peoples.” 
This photo shows two Asian American workers on a sugar cane plantation in Hawaii in 1906. The perceived notion of the Chinese, and other Asian Americans were that they were docile, hard working men. The employers believed the Chinese would be harder workers than the native Hawaiians, which caused them to recruit the Chinese to work on the plantations. William Hooper was the first to recruit Asian American workers and his reasoning was to keep the labor force from striking, but more importantly, make the land more productive while making a profit. Therefore, he, and other plantation owners, first got Chinese workers and then other different ethnicities in order to keep costs low and workers from organizing.
Asian Americans also came to the United States in order to work in the mines to look for gold. These miners worked alongside the white Americans in certain areas, but in others, such as Rock Springs, it caused riots between the two groups. The mining towns were owned by the corporation who sponsored the workers’ passage from China to the United States. This arrangement helped some Chinese men get started on the American Dream. However, once it became apparent that there was no more gold to be found, all the miners had to find other work, such as working on the railroads or opening up laundries or restaurants. This in turn, led to more conflict and anti-Chinese sentiments that eventually all added up to the Chinese Exclusion Act.
My grandparents Juanita and Simplicio Arcamo who came together to Hawai’i seeking opportunities for a new life. My great grandfather served in the US Army and they are both buried in the National Cemetery of the Pacific which is reserved for those who have served honorably in the military. Their dedication to the building of the New World is much like those of early immigrants. Many fully integrated themselves into society to build a new home leaving behind family in their countries of origin. This photo was taken in 1919.
This image was created by W.A. rogers as an illustration from Harper’s Weekly on August 5, 1899. It was titled “Open Door”. In the painting, the door labeled “CHINA” in the center is surrounded by two violent and evil-looking dragons. In addition, there are cannons and spears pointing out from the open door to the main figure (symbolizing the United States). Its purpose as an anti-Chinese cartoon can be seen from the depiction of the evil dragons and lots of weapons, which signifies the threats of Chinese immigrants to the United States.
This image was crated on July 23, 1870, also from Harper’s Weekly. We may see there brief caption at the bottom of the image saying “Throwing Down the Ladder by Which They Rose”. The artist who created this was unknown. The image seems to describe the event of the United States banning Chinese immigrants after welcomingly recruiting Chinese railway workers, miners and fieldworkers. It demonstrates the contrast of US government opening the door to Chinese immigrants and shutting the door to keep them out of the border. In fear of Chinese immigrants taking away occupations from white free laborers and finally taking over western civilization (also know as the “Yellow Peril” discussed in K.Scott Wong’s reading), the Page Law was passed and then followed by Chinese Exclusion Act.
This is a picture of my grandmother and her sisters. My grandmother is Filipino and was born in 1927 on the Big Island of Hawai’i. She thinks that she is about 16 years old in this picture placing the photo around the early 1940’s. To her right is her sister Alice and to her left is her sister Virginia. They are harvesting coffee beans on one of the plantations on The Big lsland in a part of the island known as Kona side, or the western side of the island. After many Asian ethnic groups were banned from entering the United States in the late 1800’s they began to recruit Filipinos to come to Hawai’i which was considered legal due to the Philippines being a territory of the United States until the end of World War II.